famous descendants of john of gaunt
Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. Shortly after the army returned to Portugal, John of Gaunt concluded a secret treaty with John of Trastmara under which he and his wife renounced all claim to the Castilian throne in return for a large annual payment and the marriage of their daughter Catherine to John of Trastmara's son, Henry. His direct male line, the House of Lancaster, would rule England from 1399 until the time of the Wars of the Roses. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Catherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399-1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England. Through his great-granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort he was also an ancestor of Henry VII, who married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York, and all subsequent monarchs are descendants of their marriage. Blanche (13591388/1389), who married Sir Thomas Morieux (13551387) in 1381 and had no children. An adjacent chantry chapel was added between 1399 and 1403. Blanche was the daughter of John's mistress, Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady-in-waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford. While the envoy playfully hints to Lancaster that Chaucer would certainly appreciate a boost to his status or income, the poem Fortune distinctively shows his deep appreciation and affection for John of Gaunt. This approach led indirectly to the Anglo-French Congress of Bruges in 137477, which resulted in the short-lived Truce of Bruges between the two sides. The two alabaster effigies were notable for having their right hands joined. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 - 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of four surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. My body to be buried in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, of London, near the principal altar, beside my most dear late wife Blanch, who is there interred. When he became unpopular later in life, a scurrilous rumour circulated, along with lampoons, claiming that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher. Constance died in 1394. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford's godfather. Through his first wife, Blanche (died 1368), John, in 1362, acquired the duchy of Lancaster and the vast Lancastrian estates in England and Wales. 'Old John of Gaunt, time-honour'd Lancaster' John of Gaunt (1340-1399) was the son of one king and the father of another. 14th-century English prince, Duke of Lancaster, This article is about the historical figure. For places and organisations named after him, see, A portrait commissioned in c. 1593 by Sir, John of Gaunt: Son of One King, Father of Another, Kathryn Warner, Amberley Publishing, 2022. John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373-1410)-married Margaret Holland. Thus the Beaufort family is today represented in the male line by its illegitimate continuation, the House of Somerset, whose senior representative is Henry Somerset, 12th Duke of Beaufort. The male line was however continued through Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, the illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, who adopted the surname "Somerset" and used the arms of Beaufort but with a baton sinister for bastardy.. Gaunt is also generally believed to have fathered five children outside marriage: one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother; the others, surnamed Beaufort, by Katherine Swynford, his long-term mistress and third wife. A modern monument in the crypt lists John of Gaunt's grave as among the important ones lost. The fact that he became identified with the attempts to make peace added to his unpopularity at a period when the majority of Englishmen believed victory would be in their grasp if only the French could be defeated decisively as they had been in the 1350s. Catherine of Aragon is descended from this line. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was ended out of political necessity.. After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock (also known as the "Black Prince"), John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe, possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the church. Encyclopdia Britannica. Coat of Arms of Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, Descendants of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, Cokayne, G. E.; H. A. Doubleday & Lord Howard de Walden, eds. Queen Elizabeth II and her predecessors since Henry IV are descended from John of Gaunt. Daughter of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. With them, he participated in the Siege of Limoges (September 1370). This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England". Near the end of their lives, Lancaster and Chaucer became brothers-in-law. Allrightsreserved. ", File:Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester.jpg, https://johnian.joh.cam.ac.uk/Beaufort-Society, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_Beaufort&oldid=1144813182. Through his daughter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, he was an ancestor of the Yorkist kings Edward IV, Edward V and Richard III. John (13661367) most likely died after the birth of his younger brother Henry, the future. Catherine (1372-1418), married King Henry III of Castile (1379-1406) This rumour, which infuriated him, may have been inspired by the fact that Edward III had not been present at his birth.. After Blanche's premature death in 1368 and Gaunt's re-marriage in 1371, Elizabeth and her siblings joined the household of Gaunt's second wife . His other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter (by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster), and Queen Catherine of Castile (by his second wife Constance of Castile). He was wrong-footed by John's decision to invade Galicia, the most distant and disaffected of Castile's kingdoms. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. Research devoted solely to this person has either not yet taken place or it is currently in progress. Marching in winter across the Limousin plateau, with stragglers being picked off by the French, huge numbers of the army, and even larger numbers of horses, died of cold, disease or starvation. All of them were born out of wedlock, but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. The present Somerset family, Dukes of Beaufort, of Badminton House in Gloucestershire, are illegitimate direct male descendants of John of Gaunt, being illegitimate descendants of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, first cousin of Margaret Beaufort (1443-1509). During this retreat, the army had to fight its way across the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque against a French army led by Hugh de Chtillon, who was captured and sold to Edward III. John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, also called (1342-62) earl of Richmond, or (from 1390) duc (duke) d'Aquitaine, (born March 1340, Ghentdied February 3, 1399, London), English prince, fourth but third surviving son of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut; he exercised a moderating influence in the political and constitutional Henry IV of England (1367-1413) married (1) Mary de Bohun (1369-1394); (2) Joanna of Navarre (1368-1437) He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came courtesy of his second wife Constance, who was an heir to the Castillian Kingdom, and for a time styled himself as such. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Also known as: John of Gaunt, duc dAquitaine, John of Gaunt, earl of Richmond. During his second marriage, some time around 1373 (the approximate birth year of their eldest son, John Beaufort) John of Gaunt entered into an extra-marital love affair with Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, which would produce four children for the couple. Katherine Swynford is best known as the mistress, and then wife, of John of Gaunt, whose whole life was riddled with scandal. John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford can count many of Europe's royal persons among their descendants, as well as some American presidents (except for the current one - no one can really say for certain who his ancestors are because they can't find his birth certificate). John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, the son of his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Henry and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. The links are visible today in the Town & Manor-owned John O'Gaunt Inn on Bridge Street, the John O'Gaunt School on Priory Road, as well as various street names. Married to: Sir Henry Stafford; 14621471. A later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the thronethe phrase excepta regali dignitate ("except royal status")was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. Nominally friendly lords and even his own fortresses closed their gates to him, and John was forced to flee into Scotland with a handful of retainers and throw himself on the charity of King Robert II of Scotland until the crisis was over.. Here are 10 facts about the royal ancestor, John of Gaunt. The ostrich feather arms appeared in stained glass above Gaunt's chantry chapel in St Paul's Cathedral.. Many deserted or abandoned the army to ride north under French safe conducts. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Children They had seven children; only three survived to adulthood. Thomas Swyneford, C marks; to Monsr Walter Blount, Monsr Chamberlain, C marks; to Monsr Hugh Shirley Cmarks; to Monsr Richard Aberbury, the sons, L marks; to Monsr William Par L marks; I will that a chauntry be founded at the New Church of our Lady of Leicester, for the soul of my late wife Dame Constance, who is there buried, and for ever to keep an obit for her soul on the 24th day of March; and as for the annuity or annual pension of forty-thousand franks, which my dear son the King of Castile and Leon is bound to me, a certain part of which is unpaid, I devise to the King one third part of what may, by his assistance, be recovered of the arrears now due. John (1374-1375) Another motive was John's conviction that it was only by making peace with France would it be possible to release sufficient manpower to enforce his claim to the throne of Castile. As with any good genealogical research, if you discover a link to your own family tree, consider it a starting point for further research. Dates: 1354 - March 24, 1394. John sailed from England on 9 July 1386 with a huge Anglo-Portuguese fleet carrying an army of about 5,000 men plus an extensive "royal" household and his wife and daughters. He was faced with military difficulties abroad and political divisions at home, and disagreements as to how to deal with these crises led to tensions among Gaunt, the English Parliament, and the ruling class, making him an extremely unpopular figure for a time. Afonso of Portugal (1390-1400) 3. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. 12.1 (2nd ed.). Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. Please note: The ancestor reports on this website have been compiled from thousands of different sources, many over 100 years old. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. By this time, too, some of his possessions were taken from him by the Crown. When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. What's New! However, in 1406, Henry IV decided that although the Beauforts were legitimate, their line could not be used to make any claim to the throne. London: The St. Catherine Press, p.62, see blazon of arms in Montague-Smith, P.W. First, through his legitimate male descendants the Lancasters, and then through his debatably illegitimate descendants, by his long time mistress and then third Many hundreds of English, including close friends and retainers of John of Gaunt, died of disease or exhaustion. , Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points ermine (Richmond), Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points two of ermine (Richmond) and three Azure flory Or (Lancaster), Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure compone Argent and Azure, Married to: John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset; 13991410, Married to: Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence; 14111421. He took charge of the siege operations and at one point engaged in hand-to-hand fighting in the undermining tunnels. After Blanche's death in 1368, shortly after the birth of her last child, John married, in 1371,Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of KingPeter of Castile, giving him a claim to theCrown of Castile. Ancestor charts showing the family relationships of John of Gaunt (1340-1399) to other famous people. The Castilians refused to offer battle and the Galician-Anglo-Portuguese troops, apart from time-wasting sieges of fortified towns, were reduced to foraging for food in the arid Spanish landscape. By Constance of Castile: He planned a 'great expedition' of mounted men in a large armada of ships to land at Brest and take control of Brittany. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. The Complete Peerage, or a history of the House of Lords and all its members from the earliest times (Husee to Lincolnshire). Isabel (1368-1368) The House of Beaufort /bofrt/ is an English noble and quasi-royal family, which originated in the fourteenth century as the legitimated issue of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (the third surviving son of King Edward III), whose eldest legitimate son was King Henry IV, the first Lancastrian king. Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess, also known as the Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse, was written in commemoration of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's first wife.  The title Duke of Somerset was no longer available, having been granted in 1547 by King Edward VI to his uncle Edward Seymour, Lord Protector, which family and title survives today. He was a strong military leader in the tradition of the Plantagenets and a royal prince of. Upon arrival in Bordeaux, many more succumbed to the bubonic plague that was raging in the city. He was buried in the Collegiate Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of The Newarke, Leicester (the church founded by his grandfather Henry, Duke of Lancaster. ), Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, Kelly's Directories Ltd, Kingston-upon-Thames, 1968, p.125, Planche, J.R., Pursuivant of Arms, 1851, p.xx, Beaufort Society's website (Google's cache of, "The Lancastrian Esses Collar (Appendix 7)" erenow.net, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, List of coats of arms of the House of Plantagenet, "The Wars of the Roses: York v Beaufort? However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. Through John II of Castile's great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is also an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. Ancestor charts showing the family relationships of John of Gaunt (1340-1399) to other famous people. John and Warwick then decided to strike Harfleur, the base of the French fleet on the Seine. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John's death while Henry was in exile. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. Chaucer retorts that "My frend maystow nat reven, blind goddesse" (50) and orders her to take away those who merely pretend to be his friends. The death of the Black Prince on 8 June 1376 and the onset of Edward III's last illness at the closing of Parliament on 10 July left John with all the reins of power. Trending; Presidents; TV/Film/Stage; . FamousKin.com About Me Despite Johns extreme unpopularity, he maintained his position after the accession of his ten-year-old nephew, Richard II, in 1377, and from 1381 to 1386 he mediated between the Kings party and the opposition group led by Johns younger brother, Thomas Woodstock, earl of Gloucester.  He impaled his arms with those of the Spanish kingdom. In 1386 John departed for Spain to pursue his claim to the kingship of Castile and Leon based upon his marriage to Constance of Castile in 1371. , In addition to his royal arms, Gaunt bore an alternative coat of Sable, three ostrich feathers ermine. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was also his third cousin; both were great-great-grandchildren of King Henry III. Although Philippa died c. 1387, the men were bound as brothers and Lancaster's children by KatherineJohn, Henry, Thomas and Joan Beaufortwere Chaucer's nephews and niece. The Beauforts suffered heavily in the Wars of the Roses. He mediated between the king and a group of rebellious nobles, which included Gaunt's own son and heir-apparent, Henry Bolingbroke. "White" is the English translation of the French word "blanche", implying that the white lady was Blanche of Lancaster.. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (6 March 1340 - 3 February 1399) was an English royal prince, military leader, and statesman. John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship. Upon his marriage to Constance of Castile in 1371, John assumed (officially from 29 January 1372) the title of King of Castile and Len in right of his wife, and insisted his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as "my lord of Spain". SOURCE: Wikipedia He was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century Lancastrian monarchs, Henry IV, V, and VI. From August to October, John of Gaunt set up a rudimentary court and chancery at Ourense and received the submission of the Galician nobility and most of the towns of Galicia, though they made their homage to him conditional on his being recognised as king by the rest of Castile. Close.  There was organised opposition to his measures and rioting in London; John of Gaunt's arms were reversed or defaced wherever they were displayed, and protestors pasted up lampoons on his supposedly dubious birth. King James I. of Scotland, and through her the Royal Family of Scotland descended from John of Gaunt; secondly, John Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn, from which marriage descended the Stewart Earls of Atholl, of whom there are still . From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne. The three houses of English sovereigns that succeeded the rule of Richard II in 1399 - the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor - were all descended from John's children Henry IV, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively. . The treaty was sealed by the marriage of John's eldest daughter Philippa to the Portuguese king. On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Jordana Brewster (born April 26, 1980) is an American actress and model. His wife Constance died in 1394, and two years later he married his mistress, Katherine Swynford. The grave and monument were destroyed with the cathedral in the Great Fire of London in 1666.  "Chaucer as narrator" openly defies Fortune, proclaiming he has learned who his enemies are through her tyranny and deceit, and declares "my suffisaunce" (15) and that "over himself hath the maystrye" (14). John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 - 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of four surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Edward of. 1, pp. John of Gaunt, born in 1340, was the third son of King Edward III. The family tree for John of Gaunt should not be considered exhaustive or authoritative. Married to: Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby; 14721504. Son of: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond and Lady Margaret Beaufort. Sometime after the death of Blanche of Lancaster in 1368 and the birth of their first son, John Beaufort, in 1373, John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, the daughter of an ordinary knight, entered into an extra-marital love affair that would produce four children for the couple. About Me. This was the counterpart to his brother, the Black Prince's, "shield for peace" (on which the ostrich feathers were white), and may have been used in jousting. John of Gaunt was a patron and close friend of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, best known for his work The Canterbury Tales. Nicholas Harris Nicolas, Barrister at Law, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. The arms of Castile and Len appeared on the dexter side of the shield (the left-hand side as viewed), and the differenced English royal arms on the sinister; but in 1388, when he surrendered his claim, he reversed this marshalling, placing his own arms on the dexter, and those of Castile and Len on the sinister. He did not even protest, it seems, when his younger brother Thomas was murdered at Richard's behest. A fifth reference is made by "Chaucer as narrator" who rails at Fortune that she shall not take his friend from him. However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. , John's personal unpopularity persisted, however, and the failure of his expedition to Saint-Malo in 1378 did nothing for his reputation. The present King therefore has a far more complex biological relationship to their common ancestor. John was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England. The Complete Peerage, or a history of the House of Lords and all its members from the earliest times, volume XII part 1: Skelmersdale to Towton. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his second wife, Constance of Castile, whom he had married in 1371. He was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, and the father of King Henry IV. This story always drove him to fury. Blanche of Portugal (1388-1389) 3. Five anonymous living donors, all members of the extended family of the present Duke of Beaufort, who claim descent from both the Plantagenets and Tudors through the children of John of. Philippa of Lancaster (1360-1415) 3. The Beauforts were a powerful and wealthy family from the start, and rose to greater power after their half-brother became King Henry IV in 1399, having deposed his 1st cousin King Richard II. The adulterous relationship endured until 1381, when it was broken out of political necessity. Due to Gaunt's royal origin, advantageous marriages, and some generous land grants, he was one of the richest men of his era, and was an influential figure during the reigns of both his father and his nephew, Richard II. John was left isolated (even the Black Prince supported the need for reform) and the Commons refused to grant money for the war unless most of the great officers of state were dismissed and the king's mistress Alice Perrers, another focus of popular resentment, was barred from any further association with him. Exercising his first command, John dared not attack such a superior force and the two armies faced each other across a marsh for several weeks until the English were reinforced by the Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, at which the French withdrew without offering battle. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Partly as a result of these failures, and those of other English commanders at this period, John was one of the first important figures in England to conclude that the war with France was unwinnable because of France's greater resources of wealth and manpower.  As de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Their children were given the surname "Beaufort" after a former French possession of the duke. Their magnificent tomb had been designed and executed between 1374 and 1380 by Henry Yevele with the assistance of Thomas Wrek, at a total cost of 592.